**what are Transformer Losses?**

### types of losses in transformer

*Here are two main types of transformer loss*

Core loss

Copper loss

*Here are two main types of transformer loss*

Core loss or iron loss is the sum of eddy current loss and hysteresis loss. That is, core loss`P_c=P_h+P_c`

The core loss is fixed for any transformer. The core loss remains the same in any condition from no-load to full-load of the transformer.

Because the core loss for the transformer is roughly proportional to the square of the mutual flux. That is, core loss `\phi_m^2` (Roughly).

A is established between the mutual flux core and its value is not related to the load. The mutual flux depends on the amount of supply voltage applied to the primary.

when the applied voltage decreases and increases, the mutual flux decreases, and increases. If there is no change in the applied voltage, there is no change in the mutual flux.

As a result, core loss remains the same and does not depend on load reduction and increase.

On the other hand, as the load decreases and increases, the load current becomes less and more, and accordingly, copper loss becomes less and more.

### Core loss Two types: -

Eddy current loss

Hysteresis loss

Hysteresis and Eddy current losses

### Eddy current loss in transformer

When the current flowing through the coil of an electromagnet changes. Then the magnetic field around it also changes This variable flux cuts the wire of the coil, creating voltage in the coil This flux also cuts the same core As a result,

a current is also rotated in this core, called eddy current The core resistance is interrupted when the eddy current flows through the core material. The waste that causes it is called eddy current loss.

### Eddy current loss formula

`P_C=K_ef^2B_m^2t^2`----(1)

`K_e`= The number of constant. It depends on the size of the core used, the thickness of the lamination, and the resistivity of the steel (core)f= Frequency

t= The lamination is thick

Setting the value of flux density to Bm in Equation 1

`\Rightarrow P_C=K_ef^2t^2(\frac{E^2}{f^2})=K_2t^2E^2`

Ways to reduce Eddy current loss

This loss can be reduced by using a thin core of bright resistive magnetic material.

### Hysteresis Loss

The variable current changes direction every half cycle As a result, the magnetic flux changes periodically to the maximum positive meaning once and the maximum negative value again.

This periodic change of positive mean and negative mean causes the core magnets to change direction again and again.

Power is expended as a result of so much collision. This expended energy appears as heat, this is called hysteresis loss.

### Hysteresis loss formula

`\Rightarrow P_h=K_hfB_m1.6W`--------(1)

`K_h`= The number of constant. It depends on the size and quality of the core used

`B_m`=The maximum flux density of the core

f= Frequency

Let's put this into equation 1,

### Copper loss in transformer(Copper loss)

#### Copper loss formula

That is,

`P_C\sim I^2`

`P_C\sim KVA^2`

Copper loss Two types: -

Copper loss in the primary winding

Copper loss in the secondary winding

### FAQ In Transformer Losses

### Q1.What is Eddy Current Loss?

Ans: The dissipation caused by the core resistance when the current flows through the core is called, Eddy current loss.

#### Q2.How to reduce the hysteresis loss of the transformer?

Ans: Uses high-quality magnetic seat cores.

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