Single phase induction motor

A Single-phase induction motor is an AC power supply motor. Since it is a motor, it can convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Since the single-phase induction motor is an AC motor, it is powered by an AC power source, so the motor does not work if any type of DC power is supplied.

As the name implies, single-phase AC power is provided here. This means that we use a single-phase supply of AC current in this motor.

Parts of ac motor


Stator: The coils are twisted in the stator of the induction motor to supply power.
Rotor: The rotor of the induction motor is located in the center of the stator, which rotates as a result of the power supply to the stator.

In all cases, we supply power with the stator of the AC motor and the rotor keeps rotating.

what is a single-phase motor?

An induction motor in which a single-phase supply is supplied is called a single-phase induction motor.

This motor is widely used in homes and small and big works. Such motors are easy to operate and maintain. In terms of popularity, such a motor is not comparable.

List of different parts of single-phase induction motor

1. Frame: The frame of a motor is the part that covers the motor and has a stator and rotor in between.

2. Stator and rotor: The main wending and auxiliary welding of the motor are placed on the stator so that the rotor is operated by supplying power. The rotor is located in the center of the stator, which rotates as a result of the power supply to the stator.

3. Shafts and bearings: The two iron bars at the two ends of the rotor and the thinner iron bars are called shafts. With the help of which the machine is operated with a motor.

The bearing is the part of the motor that holds the shaft along the center of the stator. This bearing is placed with the finished plate.

4.End plate set: These plates are used to protect the coil placed on the stator and the stator at both ends of the motor. Bearings are placed between these plates.

5. Cooling fans: A cooling fan is used to keep the motor cool. Which is placed with the shaft.

6. Air gap: There is a small amount of space between the stator and the rotor. By which the stator and the rotor cannot be one. This space is called an air gap.

7.Capacitor: The capacitor is placed with the auxiliary coil, producing good quality torque to start the motor. This allows the single-phase induction motor to start automatically.

working principle of single-phase induction motor


The magnetic field created by the single-phase AC power supply between the stators is why an induced EMF is created between the rotors.

The induced EMF of the rotor creates a magnetic field inside the rotor. The magnetic field of the rotor always attracts the magnetic field of the stator.

But they can never catch each other. Because there is an air gap between the stator and the rotor. As a result, the rotor starts spinning.

The main reason for rotating the rotor is that a single-phase AC supply is given to the stator and this AC supply creates a rotating magnetic field here due to the frequent change of direction over time. As a result, the rotor is rotated.

Principle of operation of single-phase induction motor


A single-phase induction motor function is to put it more accurately, a single-phase induction motor basically has two windings. One is main winding and the other is auxiliary welding.

Here in the main winding when single-phase power is supplied the rotator creates a rotating magnetic field around the main coil. The coins are arranged in such a way that the rotating magnetic field flows opposite to each other.

This causes the magnetic field generated in the rotor to be inverted. This causes the rotor to vibrate without turning.

To solve this problem a separate auxiliary wedding is connected to the main winding. Which is placed at a 90-degree angle with the main winding.

High starting from is generated by connecting a capacitor to this auxiliary winding. Which helps to maintain the balance between main winding and auxiliary winding. Helps to rotate the rotor.

The use of this capacitor in a single-phase induction motor allows the motor to run on its own. So it can be called a self-starting motor.

Single-phase induction motor diagram

Single-phase-induction-motor-diagram
A single-phase induction motor has two coils. One is starting coil or auxiliary coil and the other is the main coil or running coil.

The capacitor is connected parallel to the two ends of these two coils and the power supply of the starting coil is provided.
And the remaining two ends of the two coils are connected, which is used as neutral.

How to start single phase induction motor

1. To start by splitting the phase of the motor.
2. Turning on as capacitor motor.
3. Introduced as a repulsion motor.

Why Single Phase Induction Motor is not Self Starting?

Since a single-phase induction motor does not start, it cannot start on its own. The main reason for this is that when a single-phase supply is given to the winding of the motor, a current creates a magnetic field in the motor.

The stator current for the first half cycle of the AC supply is reversed The stator current for the reverse cycle is reversed.

As a result, the average torque for a full cycle is zero. That is, a single-phase motor does not create a rotating magnetic field like a three-phase motor, so it cannot start on its own.

How to make single-phase induction motor self-starting


The single-phase induction motor is converted to a 2 phase motor by adding an additional winding to start automatically. Which is called starting winding.

Additional capacitors are connected to operate like a 2 phase motor, which helps a single phase to conduct three-phase.

Automatic disconnection occurs when the motor speed reaches 70% to 80% of its rated speed.

Use of single-phase induction motor

1. Household chores such as - Sewing machine, fan, washing machine, etc.
2. Operating machine tools such as - Drill machine, vacuum cleaner, etc.
3. Home water pump machine
4. Train operation, lift operation, etc.

Advantages of single-phase induction motor

1. Single phase induction motor is small in size.
2. Single phase induction motor is easy to operate and maintain.
3. There is no problem in shifting single-phase induction motor.
4. It can be operated by a single-phase supply.
5. The efficiency of a single-phase induction motor is comparatively much better.
6. It does not require any DC supply.

Disadvantages of single-phase induction motor

1. The efficiency is less than that of a three-phase induction motor.
2. The power dissipation is relatively high.
3. Single phase induction motor has trouble drawing water from deep tube wells.

FAQ in  Single phase induction motor


Q1. Why is a capacitor used in a single-phase induction motor?
Ans:- The single-phase induction motor cannot start automatically, for which the starting torque is generated with a capacitor. Single-phase with a capacitor is used as a 2 phase.

Q2. What is an air gap?
Ans:- There is a small amount of space between the stator and the rotor. By which the stator and the rotor cannot be one. This space is called an air gap.

Q3. How many wires are there in a single-phase induction motor?
Ans:- Two wires are connected by a single-phase induction motor. One positive and the other negative.

If you have any doudts.Please let me know

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